Open Port Probe Sampling Interface for the Direct Coupling of Biocompatible Solid-Phase Microextraction to Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry
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In recent years, the direct coupling of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and mass spectrometry (MS) has shown its great potential to improve limits of quantitation, accelerate analysis throughput, and diminish potential matrix effects when compared to direct injection to MS. In this study, we introduce the open port probe (OPP) as a robust interface to couple biocompatible SPME (Bio-SPME) fibers to MS systems for direct electrospray ionization. The presented design consisted of minimal alterations to the front-end of the instrument and provided better sensitivity, simplicity, speed, wider compound coverage, and high-throughput in comparison to the LC-MS based approach. Quantitative determination of clenbuterol, fentanyl, and buprenorphine was successfully achieved in human urine. Despite the use of short extraction/desorption times (5 min/5 s), limits of quantitation below the minimum required performance levels (MRPL) set by the world antidoping agency (WADA) were obtained with good accuracy (>= 90%) and linearity (R-2 > 0.99) over the range evaluated for all analytes using sample volumes of 300 mu L. In-line technologies such as multiple reaction monitoring with multistage fragmentation (MRM3) and differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) were used to enhance the selectivity of the method without compromising analysis speed. On the basis of calculations, once coupled to high throughput, this method can potentially yield preparation times as low as 15 s per sample based on the 96-well plate format. Our results demonstrated that Bio-SPME-OPP-MS efficiently integrates sampling/sample cleanup and atmospheric pressure ionization, making it an advantageous configuration for several bioanalytical applications, including doping in sports, in vivo tissue sampling, and therapeutic drug monitoring.
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German Augusto Gomez-Rios, Chang Liu, Marcos Tascon, Nathaly Reyes-Garcés, Don W. Arnold, Thomas R. Covey, Janusz Pawliszyn (2017). Open Port Probe Sampling Interface for the Direct Coupling of Biocompatible Solid-Phase Microextraction to Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Mass Spectrometry. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/12358