A Study on the Effect of Bond Stress and Process Temperature on Palladium Coated Silver Wire Bonds on Aluminum Metallization
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In the past ten years, the increasing price of gold has motivated the wire bonding industry to look for alternative bonding wire materials in the field of microelectronics packaging. A new candidate wire to replace gold is palladium coated silver wire. In this thesis, the effect of the two specific process parameters “bond stress” and “process temperature” on the ball bonds made with the new candidate wire are investigated. Using 20 μm diameter wire and various level-combinations of these process parameter, ball bonds are produced according to a special accelerated optimization method to result in a target diameter of 46 ± 0.5 μm and target height of 16 ± 0.5 μm. Three different levels are used for each of the specific process parameters. After pre-selecting a few process parameters, the accelerated method determines the levels for the process parameters “impact force” and “electric flame-off current” with a 2×2 design of experiments. Then, the ultrasound parameter is maximized up to a level where a pre-selected ultrasonic deformation occurs to the bonds, maintaining the target bond diameter and height. The bond quality is measured by measuring the shear strength of the bonds. The results show that • the bond geometry is not affected by the bond stress, • the optimized specific process parameters vary by less than ~0.5 % when bond stress values are varied from 60 to 100 MPa, • the variations in optimized parameters are larger than ~3.0 % when the BT is changed from 100 to 200 ºC, • ball bonds achieve acceptable shear strength (> 120 MPa) when the values for both, bond stress and bond temperature, are high, • ultrasound level and shear stress interact, the higher shear stress the lower the ultrasound level required. An average shear strength of ~120 MPa is achieved with 11.4 % ultrasound, 100 MPa bond stress, and 200 ºC bond process temperature. In summary, a robust methodology is presented in this thesis to efficiently optimize the ball bonding process as demonstrated with the new candidate wire has a bondability similar to that of gold wire with only minor adjustment in the bonding process needed.