Optimization of Heat Sinks with Flow Bypass Using Entropy Generation Minimization
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Forced air cooling of electronic packages is enhanced through the use of extended surfaces or heat sinks that reduce boundary resistance allowing heat generating devices to operate at lower temperatures, thereby improving reliability. Unfortunately, the clearance zones or bypass regions surrounding the heat sink, channel some of the cooling air mass away from the heat sink, making it difficult to accurately estimate thermal performance. The design of an "optimized" heat sink requires a complete knowledge of all thermal resistances between the heat source and the ambient air, therefore, it is imperative that the boundary resistance is properly characterized, since it is typically the controlling resistance in the path. Existing models are difficult to incorporate into optimization routines because they do not provide a means of predicting flow bypass based on information at hand, such as heat sink geometry or approach velocity. <br /><br /> A procedure is presented that allows the simultaneous optimization of heat sink design parameters based on a minimization of the entropy generation associated with thermal resistance and fluid pressure drop. All relevant design parameters such as geometric parameters of a heat sink, source and bypass configurations, heat dissipation, material properties and flow conditions can be simultaneously optimized to characterize a heat sink that minimizes entropy generation and in turn results in a minimum operating temperature of an electronic component. <br /><br /> An analytical model for predicting air flow and pressure drop across the heat sink is developed by applying conservation of mass and momentum over the bypass regions and in the flow channels established between the fins of the heat sink. The model is applicable for the entire laminar flow range and any type of bypass (side, top or side and top both) or fully shrouded configurations. During the development of the model, the flow was assumed to be steady, laminar, developing flow. The model is also correlated to a simple equation within 8% confidence level for an easy implementation into the entropy generation minimization procedure. The influence of all the resistances to heat transfer associated with a heat sink are studied, and an order of magnitude analysis is carried out to include only the influential resistances in the thermal resistance model. Spreading and material resistances due to the geometry of the base plate, conduction and convection resistances associated with the fins of the heat sink and convection resistance of the wetted surfaces of the base plate are considered for the development of a thermal resistance model. The thermal resistance and pressure drop model are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of flow conditions, heat sink geometries, bypass configurations and power levels, typical of many applications found in microelectronics and related fields. Data published in the open literature are also used to show the flexibility of the models to simulate a variety of applications. <br /><br /> The proposed thermal resistance and pressure drop model are successfully used in the entropy generation minimization procedure to design a heat sink with bypass for optimum dimensions and performance. A sensitivity analysis is also carried out to check the influence of bypass configurations, power levels, heat sink materials and the coverage ratio on the optimum dimensions and performance of a heat sink and it is found that any change in these parameters results in a change in the optimized heat sink dimensions and flow conditions associated with the application for optimal heat sink performance.
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Md Rakib Hossain (2006). Optimization of Heat Sinks with Flow Bypass Using Entropy Generation Minimization. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/896