Model Reduction for Vehicle Systems Modelling
Nguyen, Khanh V. Q.
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The full model of a double-wishbone suspension has more than 30 differential-algebraic equations which takes a remarkably long time to simulate. By contrast, the look-up table for the same suspension is simulated much faster, but may not be very accurate. Therefore, developing reduced models that approximate complex systems is necessary because model reduction decreases the simulation time in comparison with the original model, enables real time applications, and produces acceptable accuracy. In this research, we focus on model reduction techniques for vehicle systems such as suspensions and how they are approximated by models having lower degrees of freedom. First, some existing model reduction techniques, such as irreducible realization procedures, balanced truncation, and activity-based reduction, are implemented to some vehicle suspensions. Based on the application of these techniques, their disadvantages are revealed. Then, two methods of model reduction for multi-body systems are proposed. The first proposed method is 2-norm power-based model reduction (2NPR) that combines 2-norm of power and genetic algorithms to derive reduced models having lower degrees of freedom and fewer number of components. In the 2NPR, some components such as mass, damper, and spring are removed from the original system. Afterward, the values of the remaining components are adjusted by the genetic algorithms. The most important advantage of the 2NPR is keeping the topology of multi-body systems which is useful for design purposes. The second method uses proper orthogonal decomposition. First, the equations of motion for a multi-body system are converted to explicit second-order differential equations. Second, the projection matrix is obtained from simulation or experimental data by proper orthogonal decomposition. Finally, the equations of motion are transferred to a lower-dimensional state coordinate system. The implementation of the 2NPR to two double-wishbone suspensions and the comparison with other techniques such as balanced truncation and activity-based model reduction also demonstrate the efficiency of the new reduction technique.