Realtime Motion Planning for Manipulator Robots under Dynamic Environments: An Optimal Control Approach
Ogunlowore, Olabanjo Jude
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This report presents optimal control methods integrated with hierarchical control framework to realize real-time collision-free optimal trajectories for motion control in kinematic chain manipulator (KCM) robot systems under dynamic environments. Recently, they have been increasingly used in applications where manipulators are required to interact with random objects and humans. As a result, more complex trajectory planning schemes are required. The main objective of this research is to develop new motion control strategies that can enable such robots to operate efficiently and optimally in such unknown and dynamic environments. Two direct optimal control methods: The direct collocation method and discrete mechanics for optimal control methods are investigated for solving the related constrained optimal control problem and the results are compared. Using the receding horizon control structure, open-loop sub-optimal trajectories are generated as real-time input to the controller as opposed to the predefined trajectory over the entire time duration. This, in essence, captures the dynamic nature of the obstacles. The closed-loop position controller is then engaged to span the robot end-effector along this desired optimal path by computing appropriate torque commands for the joint actuators. Employing a two-degree of freedom technique, collision-free trajectories and robot environment information are transmitted in real-time by the aid of a bidirectional connectionless datagram transfer. A hierarchical network control platform is designed to condition triggering of precedent activities between a dedicated machine computing the optimal trajectory and the real-time computer running a low-level controller. Experimental results on a 2-link planar robot are presented to validate the main ideas. Real-time implementation of collision-free workspace trajectory control is achieved for cases where obstacles are arbitrarily changing in the robot workspace.