Algebraic Aspects of Multi-Particle Quantum Walks
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A continuous time quantum walk consists of a particle moving among the vertices of a graph G. Its movement is governed by the structure of the graph. More formally, the adjacency matrix A is the Hamiltonian that determines the movement of our particle. Quantum walks have found a number of algorithmic applications, including unstructured search, element distinctness and Boolean formula evaluation. We will examine the properties of periodicity and state transfer. In particular, we will prove a result of the author along with Godsil, Kirkland and Severini, which states that pretty good state transfer occurs in a path of length n if and only if the n+1 is a power of two, a prime, or twice a prime. We will then examine the property of strong cospectrality, a necessary condition for pretty good state transfer from u to v. We will then consider quantum walks involving more than one particle. In addition to moving around the graph, these particles interact when they encounter one another. Varying the nature of the interaction term gives rise to a range of different behaviours. We will introduce two graph invariants, one using a continuous-time multi-particle quantum walk, and the other using a discrete-time quantum walk. Using cellular algebras, we will prove several results which characterize the strength of these two graph invariants. Let A be an association scheme of n × n matrices. Then, any element of A can act on the space of n × n matrices by left multiplication, right multiplication, and Schur multiplication. The set containing these three linear mappings for all elements of A generates an algebra. This is an example of a Jaeger algebra. Although these algebras were initially developed by Francois Jaeger in the context of spin models and knot invariants, they prove to be useful in describing multi-particle walks as well. We will focus on triply-regular association schemes, proving several new results regarding the representation of their Jaeger algebras. As an example, we present the simple modules of a Jaeger algebra for the 4-cube.