Design and Characterization of Resist and Mold Materials for Electron-Beam and Nanoimprint Lithography
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Electron beam lithography (EBL) and Nanoimprint Lithography (NIL) are the promising tools for today’s technology in terms of resolution capability, fidelity and cost of operation. Achieving highest possible resolution is a key concept for EBL where there is a huge request in applications of nanotechnology for sub-20 nm feature sizes. Defining features at these length scales is a challenge, and there is a large demand for resist that is not only capable of giving high resolution but also having low cost and ease of process. In this work I studied Polystyrene (PS) which is an alternative organic e-beam resist in terms of ease of process and resolution capability. I examined the process of electron-beam exposure and attempted to characterize the factors that affect the achieved resolution and sensitivity. Besides this work, I designed and fabricated a new type of mold for NIL since mold fabrication is a key factor for NIL technology. The resolution of NIL process depends on the mold features and polymer mold technology received great attention in terms of cost of fabrication and process, fidelity, and reliability. I used MD 700 Fluoropolymer as a new type of polymer mold which was believed to be a good candidate for the polymer mold of high throughput NIL.