Crystal Plasticity Modelling of Large Strain Deformation in Single Crystals of Magnesium
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Magnesium, with a Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) structure, is the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust and the third most plentiful element dissolved in the seawater. Magnesium alloys exhibit the attractive characteristics of low densities and high strength-to-weight ratios along with good castability, recyclability, and machinability. Replacing the steel and/or aluminum sheet parts with magnesium sheet parts in vehicles is a great way of reducing the vehicles weight, which results in great savings on fuel consumption. The lack of magnesium sheet components in vehicle assemblies is due to magnesium’s poor room-temperature formability. In order to successfully form the sheets of magnesium at room temperature, it is necessary to understand the formability of magnesium at room temperature controlled by various plastic deformation mechanisms. The plastic deformation mechanisms in pure magnesium and some of its alloys at room temperature are crystallographic slip and deformation twinning. The slip systems in magnesium at room temperature are classified into primary (first generation), secondary (second generation), and tertiary (third generation) slip systems. The twinning systems in magnesium at room temperature are classified into primary (first generation) and secondary (second generation, or double) twinning systems. A new comprehensive rate-dependent elastic-viscoplastic Crystal Plasticity Constitutive Model (CPCM) that accounts for all these plastic deformation mechanisms in magnesium was proposed. The proposed model individually simulates slip-induced shear in the parent as well as in the primary and secondary twinned regions, and twinning-induced shear in the primary and secondary twinned regions. The model also tracks the texture evolution in the parent, primary and secondary twinned regions. Separate resistance evolution functions for the primary, secondary, and tertiary slip systems, as well as primary and secondary twinning systems were considered in the formulation. In the resistance evolution functions, the interactions between various slip and twinning systems were accounted for. The CPCM was calibrated using the experimental data reported in the literature for pure magnesium single crystals at room temperature, but needs further experimental data for full calibration. The partially calibrated model was used to assess the contributions of various plastic deformation mechanisms in the material stress-strain response. The results showed that neglecting secondary slip and secondary twinning while simulating plastic deformation of magnesium alloys by crystal plasticity approach can lead to erroneous results. This indicates that all the plastic deformation mechanisms have to be accounted for when modelling the plastic deformation in magnesium alloys. Also, the CPCM in conjunction with the Marciniak–Kuczynski (M–K) framework were used to assess the formability of a magnesium single crystal sheet at room temperature by predicting the Forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs). Sheet necking was initiated from an initial imperfection in terms of a narrow band. A homogeneous deformation field was assumed inside and outside the band, and conditions of compatibility and equilibrium were enforced across the band interfaces. Thus, the CPCM only needs to be applied to two regions, one inside and one outside the band. The FLDs were simulated under two conditions: a) the plastic deformation mechanisms are primary slip systems alone, and b) the plastic deformation mechanisms are primary slip and primary twinning systems. The FLDs were computed for two grain orientations. In the first orientation, primary extension twinning systems had favourable orientation for activation. In the second orientation, primary contraction twinning systems had favourable orientation for activation. The effects of shear strain outside the necking band, rate sensitivity, and c/a ratio on the simulated FLDs in the two grain orientations were individually explored.