|dc.description.abstract||Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) micromirrors have been developed for more than two decades along with the development of MEMS technology. They have been used into many application fields: optical switches, digital light projector (DLP), adoptive optics (AO), high definition (HD) display, barcode reader, endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscope, and so on. Especially, MEMS mirrors applied into endoscopic OCT and confocal microscope are the intensive research field. Various actuation mechanisms, such as electrostatic, electromagnetic, electro bimorph thermal, electrowetting, piezoelectric (PZT) and hybrid actuators, are adopted by different types of micromirrors. Among these actuators, the electrostatic is easily understood and simple to realize, therefore, it is broadly adopted by a large number of micromirrors.
This thesis reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of a 2-D Silicon-on-insulation (SOI) MEMS micromirror with sidewall (SW) electrodes for endoscopic OCT or confocal microscope imaging. The biaxial MEMS mirror with SW electrodes is actuated by electrostatic actuators. The dimension of mirror plate is 1000micron×1000micron, with a thickness of a 35micron. The analytical modeling of SW electrodes, fabrication process, and performance characteristics are described. In comparison to traditional electrostatic actuators, parallel-plate and comb-drive, SW electrodes combined with bottom electrodes achieve a large tilt angle under a low drive voltage that the comb-drive does and possess fairly simple fabrication process same as that of the parallel-plate. A new fabrication process based on SOI wafer, hybrid bulk/surface micromachined technology, and a high-aspect-ratio shadow mask is presented. Moreover, the fabrication process is successfully extended to fabricate 2×2 and 4×4 micromirror arrays. Finally, a biaxial MEMS mirror with SW electrodes was used into Confocal MACROscope for imaging. Studied optical requirements in terms of two optical configurations and frequency optimization of the micromirror, the biaxial MEMS mirror replaces the galvo-scanner and improves the MACROscope. Meanwhile, a new Micromirror-based Laser Scanning Microscope system is presented and allows 2D images to be acquired and displayed.||en