Information propagation and entanglement generation between two Unruh-DeWitt detectors
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The setup in which two quantum systems, Alice and Bob, communicate using bosonic field quanta can be viewed as a prototype for wireless quantum communication. In this thesis we focus on the most basic case, where Alice and Bob are modeled as Unruh-DeWitt detectors, i.e., as two-level quantum systems that interact locally through a scalar quantum field. Our aim is to study how information propagation and entanglement generation between the two detectors are impacted by both relativity and by the unavoidable noise that is due to the quantum fluctuations of the field. We start by studying information propagation between the two detectors. Concretely, we construct and study the information-theoretic quantum channel, ξ, i.e., the completely positive trace preserving map between the input density matrix ϱ, in which Alice prepares her detector for the emission, and the output density matrix ϱ '=ξ(ϱ) of Bob's detector at a later time. We confirm that the classical as well as the quantum channel capacity are strictly zero to all orders in perturbation theory for spacelike separations. We then study entanglement generation between the two detectors. Specifically, we discuss how two Unruh-DeWitt detectors can extract entanglement from the vacuum. We show that the detectors can naturally and instantaneously become entangled through a Casimir-Polder effect. We then analyze the impact of various additions to this setup, such as the presence of a weak gravitational field, the presence of boundary conditions in the field, the presence of a weak classical potential, etc.