Measurements and Models Related to Solar Optics in Windows with Shading Devices
Kotey, Nathan Amon
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Shading devices have the potential to reduce peak cooling load and annual energy consumption because they can be used to control solar gain. Thus, the need to model shading devices in a glazing system analysis is important. This thesis deals with various measurement techniques and model development related to solar optics in windows with shading devices. It also considers longwave radiative properties of shading devices via model development and experimentation. The different shading devices examined were roller blinds, insect screens, pleated drapes and venetian blinds. The energy performance of windows with shading devices was modeled using a two step procedure. Solar radiation was considered in the first step by developing a multi-layer solar optical model for glazing/shading systems. This newly developed model is an extension of an existing model for systems of specular glazing layers and includes the effect of layers that create scattered, specifically diffuse, radiation in reflection and/or transmission. Spatially-averaged (effective) optical properties were used to characterise shading layers, including their beam-diffuse split. The multi-layer solar optical model estimates the system solar transmission and absorbed solar components. The absorbed solar components appear as energy source terms in the second step – the heat transfer analysis. The heat transfer analysis involves the formulation of energy balance equations and requires both effective longwave properties and convective heat transfer coefficients as input. The simultaneous solution of the energy balance equations yields the temperature as well as the convective and radiative fluxes. The effective solar optical properties of flat materials like drapery fabrics, roller blinds and insect screens were obtained by developing a new measurement technique. Special sample holders were designed and fabricated to facilitate measurements using an integrating sphere installed in a commercially available spectrophotometer. Semi-empirical models were then developed to quantify the variation of solar optical properties with respect to incidence angle. In turn, effective layer properties of venetian blinds and pleated drapes were modeled using a more fundamental net radiation scheme. The effective longwave properties of flat materials were obtained by taking measurements with an infrared reflectometer using two backing surfaces. The results enabled simple models to be developed relating emittance and longwave transmittance to openness, emittance and longwave transmittance of the structure. In turn, effective longwave properties of venetian blinds and pleated drapes were modeled using a net radiation scheme. Convective heat transfer correlations were readily available. Finally, the newly developed models were validated by measuring the solar gain through various shading devices attached to a double glazed window using the National Solar Test Facility (NSTF) solar simulator and solar calorimeter. Solar gain results were also obtained from simulation software that incorporated the models. There was good agreement between the measured and the simulated results thus strengthening confidence in the newly developed models.