Selectable Heaps and Their Application to Lazy Search Trees
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We show the O(log n) time extract minimum function of efficient priority queues can be generalized to the extraction of the k smallest elements in O(k log(n/k)) time. We first show the heap-ordered tree selection of Kaplan et al. can be applied on the heap-ordered trees of the classic Fibonacci heap to support the extraction in O(k \log(n/k)) amortized time. We then show selection is possible in a priority queue with optimal worst-case guarantees by applying heap-ordered tree selection on Brodal queues, supporting the operation in O(k log(n/k)) worst-case time. Via a reduction from the multiple selection problem, Ω(k log(n/k)) time is necessary. We then apply the result to the lazy search trees of Sandlund & Wild, creating a new interval data structure based on selectable heaps. This gives optimal O(B+n) lazy search tree performance, lowering insertion complexity into a gap Δi to O(log(n/|Δi|))$ time. An O(1)-time merge operation is also made possible under certain conditions. If Brodal queues are used, all runtimes of the lazy search tree can be made worst-case. The presented data structure uses soft heaps of Chazelle, biased search trees, and efficient priority queues in a non-trivial way, approaching the theoretically-best data structure for ordered data.
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Lingyi Zhang (2021). Selectable Heaps and Their Application to Lazy Search Trees. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/16921