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dc.contributor.authorFortes Tondello, Gustavo
dc.contributor.authorMora, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorMarczewski, Andrzej
dc.contributor.authorNacke, Lennart E. 20:36:58 (GMT) 00:00:00 (GMT) 20:36:58 (GMT)
dc.descriptionThe final publication is available at Elsevier via � 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
dc.description.abstractGamification, the use of game elements in non-game systems, is now established as a relevant research field in human-computer interaction (HCI). Several empirical studies have shown that gameful interventions can increase engagement and generate desired behavioral outcomes in HCI applications. However, some inconclusive results indicate that we need a fuller understanding of the mechanisms and effects of gamification. The Gamification User Types Hexad scale allows us to parse different user motivations in participants� interactions with gameful applications, which are measured using a self-report questionnaire. Each user type represents a style of interaction with gameful applications, for example, if the interactions are more focused on achievements, socialization, or rewards. Thus, by scoring an individual in each one of the user types of the Hexad model, we can establish a profile of user preferences for gameful interactions. However, we still lack a substantial empirical validation of this scale. Therefore, we set out to validate the factor structure of the scale, in both English and Spanish, by conducting three studies, which also investigated the distribution of the Hexad's user types in the sample. Our findings support the structural validity of the scale, as well as suggesting opportunities for improvement. Furthermore, we demonstrate that some user types are more common than others and that gender and age correlate with a person's user types. Our work contributes to HCI research by further validating the utility of the Gamification User Types Hexad scale, potentially affording researchers a deeper understanding of the mechanisms and effects of gameful interventions.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada [grant RGPIN-418622-2012]en
dc.description.sponsorshipSocial Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada [grant 895-2011-1014]en
dc.description.sponsorshipMITACS [grant IT07255]en
dc.description.sponsorshipCFI [grant 35819]en
dc.description.sponsorshipAg�ncia de Gesti� d'Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca, Generalitat de Catalunya [Industrial Doctorate programme 2014-DI-006]en
dc.description.sponsorshipGovernment of Spain [project TIN2013-45303-P]en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectgameful designen
dc.subjectuser typesen
dc.titleEmpirical validation of the Gamification User Types Hexad scale in English and Spanishen
dcterms.bibliographicCitationTondello, G. F., Mora, A., Marczewski, A., & Nacke, L. E. (2018). Empirical validation of the Gamification User Types Hexad scale in English and Spanish. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Mathematicsen
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Artsen
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Engineeringen
uws.contributor.affiliation2David R. Cheriton School of Computer Scienceen
uws.contributor.affiliation2Games Instituteen
uws.contributor.affiliation2Drama and Speech Communicationen
uws.contributor.affiliation2Systems Design Engineeringen

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