Realistic expectations for the treatment of FMGP residuals by chemical oxidants
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Methods to remediate soil and groundwater contamination at former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) sites are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of two chemical oxidants (persulfate and permanganate) to degrade FMGP residuals in a dynamic system representative of in situ conditions. A series of physical model trials supported by aqueous and slurry batch experiments using impacted sediments collected from a FMGP site were conducted. To explore treatment expectations a screening model constrained by the experimental data was employed. The results from the aqueous experiments showed that dissolved components (except for benzene) were readily degraded by persulfate or permanganate. In the well-mixed slurry systems, when contact with the oxidant was achieved, 95%, 45% and 30% of the initial mass quantified was degraded by permanganate, unactivated persulfate, and alkaline activated persulfate, respectively. In stark contrast, the total mass removed in the physical model trials was negligible for both permanganate and persulfate irrespective of the bleb or lense architecture used. Hence the net benefit of flushing 6 pore volumes of permanganate or persulfate at a concentration of 30 g/L under the physical model operating conditions was minimal. To achieve a substantial degradation of mass within the treatment system (>40%), results from the screening model indicated that the hydraulic resident time would need to be >10 days and the average lumped mass transfer coefficient increased by two orders-of-magnitude. Results from long-term (5 years) simulations showed that the dissolved concentrations of organic compounds are reduced temporarily as a result of the presence of permanganate but then rebound to a profile that is essentially coincident with a no-treatment scenario following exposure to permanganate. Neither a lower velocity nor higher permanganate dosing affected the long-term behavior of the dissolved phase concentrations; however, increasing the mass transfer rate coefficient had an impact. The findings from this investigation indicate that the efficiency of permanganate or persulfate to treat for FMGP residuals is mass transfer limited.
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Saeid Shafieiyoun, Neil R. Thomson, Andrew P. Brey, Chris M. Gasinski, William Pence, Mike Marley (2018). Realistic expectations for the treatment of FMGP residuals by chemical oxidants. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/14189
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