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dc.contributor.authorFortes Tondello, Gustavo
dc.contributor.authorMora, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorNacke, Lennart 16:56:42 (GMT) 16:56:42 (GMT)
dc.description© Owners/Authors, 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in CHI PLAY '17 - Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play.en
dc.description.abstractSeveral studies have developed models to explain player preferences. These models have been developed for digital games; however, they have been frequently applied in gameful design (i.e., designing non-game applications with game elements) without empirical validation of their fit to this different context. It is not clear if users experience game elements embedded in applications similarly to how players experience them in games. Consequently, we still lack a conceptual framework of design elements built specifically for a gamification context. To fill this gap, we propose a classification of eight groups of gameful design elements produced from an exploratory factor analysis based on participants’ self-reported preferences. We describe the characteristics of the users who are more likely to enjoy each group of design elements in terms of their gender, age, gamification user type, and personality traits. Our main contribution is providing an overview of which design elements work best for what demographic clusters and how we can apply this knowledge to design effective gameful systems.en
dc.description.sponsorshipSSHRC || 895-2011-1014, IMMERSe NSERC || RGPIN-418622-2012 CFI || 35819 Mitacs || IT07255 CNPq, Brazil Agència de Gestió d’Ajuts Universitaris i de Recerca (Generalitat de Catalunya) || Industrial Doctorate programme 2014-DI-006en
dc.publisherAssociation for Computing Machineryen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesCHI PLAY 2017;
dc.subjectGameful Designen
dc.subjectGames User Researchen
dc.subjectUser Typesen
dc.subjectGame Design Elementsen
dc.titleElements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferencesen
dc.typeConference Paperen
dcterms.bibliographicCitationGustavo F. Tondello, Alberto Mora, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2017. Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences. In Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play (CHI PLAY '17). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 129-142. DOI:
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Artsen
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Mathematicsen
uws.contributor.affiliation2David R. Cheriton School of Computer Scienceen
uws.contributor.affiliation2Drama and Speech Communicationen
uws.contributor.affiliation2Games Instituteen

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