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dc.contributor.authorSemple, Shawna L.
dc.contributor.authorEshaque, Shathi
dc.contributor.authorFujiki, Kazuhiro
dc.contributor.authorTang, Cynthia
dc.contributor.authorMitchell, Leslie
dc.contributor.authorBols, Niels C.
dc.contributor.authorDixon, Brian 15:14:03 (GMT) 15:14:03 (GMT)
dc.descriptionThe final publication is available at Elsevier via © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
dc.description.abstractRainbow trout chemokine 2 (CK-2) is currently the only known CC chemokine to have a mucin stalk. Further analysis of the mucin stalk region revealed a second, related CC chemokine sequence, denoted here as CK-2.1. This second sequence was determined to be an allele of CK-2 following genomic PCR analysis on several outbred individuals. Furthermore, in both in vivo and in vitro trials, CK-2 and CK-2.1 were both present, but appeared to have differential tissue expression in both control and PHA stimulated samples. Upon the development of a polyclonal antibody to rCK-2, CK-2 was only observed in the brain, liver and head kidney of PHA stimulated rainbow trout tissues. In comparison, when using the rainbow trout monocyte/macrophage-like cell line, RTS-11, CK-2 protein was observed in both control and PHA stimulated conditions. When studying the function of CK-2, a chemotaxis assay revealed that both peripheral blood leukocytes and RTS-11 cells migrated towards rCK-2 significantly at all concentrations studied when compared to truncated β2m. Interestingly, this migration was lowest at both the highest concentration and the lowest concentrations of CK-2. Thus, teleostean chemokine receptors may become desensitized when overstimulated as has been observed in mammalian models. The observed chemotactic function was indeed due to rCK-2 as cell migration was inhibited through pre-treatment of both the cells and the polyclonal antibody with rCK-2. As has been observed thus far with all other chemokines, CK-2 does appear to function through binding to a G-coupled protein receptor as chemotaxis could be inhibited through pre-treatment with pertussis toxin. Overall, the results of this study indicate that CK-2 is a functional chemokine that is encoded by two differentially expressed alleles in rainbow trout, CK-2 and CK-2.1.en
dc.description.sponsorshipNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council || 217529en
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectphytohemagglutinin (PHA)en
dc.subjectperipheral blood leukocytesen
dc.subjectrainbow trouten
dc.subjectCC chemokineen
dc.titleCK-2 of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has two differentially regulated alleles that encode a functional chemokineen
dcterms.bibliographicCitationSemple, S. L., Eshaque, S., Fujiki, K., Tang, C., Mitchell, L., Bols, N. C., & Dixon, B. (2018). CK-2 of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has two differentially regulated alleles that encode a functional chemokine. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 198, 26–36.
uws.contributor.affiliation1Faculty of Scienceen

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