Right Ventricular Function, Peripheral Edema, and Acute Kidney Injury in Critical Illness
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The cardiorenal syndrome generally focuses on left ventricular function, and the importance of the right ventricle as a determinant of renal function is described less frequently. In a cohort of critically ill patients with echocardiographic measurements obtained within 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit, we examined the association of right ventricular function with acute kidney injury (AKI) and AKI-associated mortality. We also examined whether clinical measurement of volume overload modified the association between ventricular function and AKI in a subpopulation with documented admission physical examinations. Among 1879 critically ill patients with echocardiographic ventricular measurements, 43% (n = 807) had ventricular dysfunction—21% (n = 388), 9% (n = 167), and 13% (n = 252) with isolated left ventricular dysfunction, isolated right ventricular dysfunction, and biventricular dysfunction, respectively. Overall, ventricular dysfunction was associated with a 43% higher adjusted risk of AKI (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.80; P = 0.002) compared with those with normal biventricular function, whereas isolated left ventricular dysfunction, isolated right ventricular dysfunction, and biventricular dysfunction were associated with a 1.34 (95% CI 1.00-1.77, P = 0.05), 1.35 (95% CI 0.90–2.10, P = 0.14) and 1.67 (95% CI 1.23–2.31, P = 0.002) higher adjusted risk. Although an episode of AKI was associated with an approximately 2-fold greater risk of hospital mortality in those with isolated left ventricular dysfunction and biventricular dysfunction, in those with isolated right ventricular dysfunction, AKI was associated with a 7.85-fold greater risk of death (95% CI 2.89–21.3, P < 0.001). Independent of ventricular function, peripheral edema was an important determinant of AKI. Like left ventricular function, right ventricular function is an important determinant of AKI and AKI-associated mortality. Volume overload, independently of ventricular function, is a risk factor for AKI. Whether establishment of euvolemia might mitigate AKI risk will require further study.
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Christina Chen, Joon Lee, Alistair E. Johnson, Roger G. Mark, Leo Anthony Celi, John Danziger (2017). Right Ventricular Function, Peripheral Edema, and Acute Kidney Injury in Critical Illness. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/12706
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