Coupling solid phase microextraction to complementary separation platforms for metabotyping of E. coli metabolome in response to natural antibacterial agents
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Introduction Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity; thus, their use has played an important role over the years in medicine and for food preservation purposes. Objective The effect of clove oil and its major constituents as bactericidal agents on the global metabolic profiling of E. coli bacteria was assessed by means of metabolic alterations, using solid phase microextraction (SPME) as a sample preparation method coupled to complementary analytical platforms. Method E. Coli cultures treated with clove oil and its major individual components were sampled by HS-SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS and SPME-UPLC-MS. Full factorial design was applied in order to estimate the most effective antibacterial agent towards E. coli. Central composite design and factorial design were applied to investigate parameters influencing metabolite coverage and efficiency by SPME. Results The metabolic profile, including 500 metabolites identified by LC-MS and 789 components detected by GCxGC-ToF/MS, 125 of which were identified as dys-egulated metabolites, revealed changes in the metabolome provoked by the antibacterial activity of clove oil, and in particular its major constituent eugenol. Analyses of individual components selected using orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis showed a neat differentiation between control samples in comparison to treated samples in various sets of metabolic pathways. Conclusions The combination of a sample preparation method capable of providing cleaner extracts coupled to different analytical platforms was successful in uncovering changes in metabolic pathways associated with lipids biodegradation, changes in the TCA cycle, amino acids, and enzyme inhibitors in response to antibacterial treatment.
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Fatemeh Mousavi, Emanuela Gionfriddo, Eduardo Carasek, Erica A. Souza-Silva, Janusz Pawliszyn (2016). Coupling solid phase microextraction to complementary separation platforms for metabotyping of E. coli metabolome in response to natural antibacterial agents. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/12551