Development and application of SPME technologies for the rapid sampling and analysis of anthropogenic compounds in the environment
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Due to the wide spread use of pharmaceuticals in both human and animal populations, the contamination of surface waters resulting from the outflow of waste water treatment facilities is of growing concern. Conventional methods used for the determination of these compounds often require extensive sample preparation in order to achieve appropriate limits of detection and quantitation. As a result, analytical methods which utilize these procedures are limited in their throughput capacity, while also generating large volumes of solvent waste. Coated blade spray (CBS) is a solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique which enables the direct to mass spectrometry analysis of extracted compounds with the application of limited organic solvent in order to desorb analyte and perform electrospray ionization. Demonstrated herein is the application of CBS for the concomitant MS/MS analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals in environmental waters which was able to demonstrate LODs for all compounds at concentrations of less than 50 ng/L while employing a 30 second analysis time. As select pharmaceuticals are susceptible to bioaccumulation, the analysis of fish tissue as a marker of environmental pollution is also an area of interest. For this reason a device was developed, the SPME needle, which is able to perform rapid tissue analysis without the need for a protective sheathing needle or house, simplifying the sampling process. The device was further validated to be reproducible and not effected by puncture through protective tissue. Finally, the device was incorporated into a projectile which was validated to enable rapid one handed SPME sampler administration in a matter of seconds in an on-site proof of concept.
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Justen Poole (2017). Development and application of SPME technologies for the rapid sampling and analysis of anthropogenic compounds in the environment. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/11766