In this paper, we survey two kinds of mathematics-based battery models intended for use in hybrid and electric vehicle simulation. The first is circuit-based, which is founded upon the electrical behaviour of the battery, and abstracts away the electrochemistry into equivalent electrical components. The second is chemistry-based, which is founded upon the electrochemical equations of the battery chemistry.
Aden Seaman, Thanh-Son Dao, John McPhee
A survey of mathematics-based equivalent-circuit and electrochemical battery models for hybrid and electric vehicle simulation. UWSpace.