Drag Reduction in Pipeline by Polymer-Surfactant and Polymer-Polymer Mixtures
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Extensive researches have been conducted to investigate into the drag reduction behavior of the polymer-surfactant mixture and the polymer-polymer mixture. The drag reduction effect of PAM (polyacrylamide), PEO (polyethylene oxide) and CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) has already been studied respectively. However, the drag reduction effects of the combination of these polymers have not been studied before. It is interesting to investigate into these combinations because the synergy between different polymers can enhance the drag reduction effect under the right condition. SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is a surfactant widely used in many commercially available detergents. When dissolved in water and circulated in the flow loop, the drag reduction effect of SDS has also been observed. Therefore, the combination of PAM and SDS is also worth exploring. The synergy between the polymer and the surfactant may strengthen the drag reduction effect. In this thesis, the drag reduction effects are investigated for the following combinations: the PAM-SDS system, the PAM-CMC system and the PEO-CMC system. The mixed solutions are circulated in the flow loop, where the pressure drop over a certain distance and the flow rate are recorded in order to plot the friction factor against the Reynolds number. In addition, the viscosity, conductivity and surface tension of the mixed solutions are studied at bench-scale to look for the synergy in the mixed system.