A Case Study of a Hotel Solid Waste Management Program in Bali, Indonesia
The main objectives of this study were: to provide a review of key concepts and issues relevant to solid waste management in developing countries; to analyse and evaluate the hotel solid waste management (HSWM) program in Bali, Indonesia; and to suggest recommendations and areas for further research. The following data collection methods were used in this study: review of documents and literature, interviews, surveys and field observations. Tourism in host regions such as Bali can bring both positive and negative impacts. One aspect of tourism that can have an impact on local communities is solid waste management (SWM). Improper SWM can lead to pollution and deterioration of the aesthetic appeal of tourist destinations. Conversely, solid waste can be a resource to the local community, providing opportunities for business development and the achievement of social, political and environmental objectives. Planning for SWM is complex, involving the consideration of multiple and interconnected issues. Therefore, in addressing SWM issues, it is appropriate to use an integrated approach that recognises the various stakeholders, activities and perspectives involved. In addition, concepts such as appropriate technology, cleaner production, life cycle assessment and environmental management systems can be useful for improving how solid waste management is approached. A local environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO), waste hauler and hotels in Bali developed a program to improve the management of solid waste from hotels. The history, planning, management and stakeholders involved with the development of this program are described in this study. Various issues pertaining to the achievement of social, environmental and economic objectives are investigated to provide a view of program realities and the range of challenges faced by program participants. Conclusions and lessons learned from the case study are presented and links between concepts in the literature and findings from the case study are discussed. Recommendations concerning topics such as planning, management, stakeholder involvement, health and safety, data management and source separation are suggested and future research directions are outlined.