Economical and Environmental Impacts of Emission Mitigation in Petroleum Refineries
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Despite the large number of products produced by oil refineries, they are considered to be one of the main source of air contaminants including, sulphur oxides SOx, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides NOx and carbon oxide CO2, which are primarily caused by fuel burning. Gases emanated from fuel burning in oil refinery need to be tumbled down as they create a critical environmental issue in the developed world. A number of control strategies can be applied in order to mitigate emissions and meet certain environmental regulations. This thesis addresses the development of a mathematical model for an oil refinery with consideration to multiple pollutants reduction alternatives. The objective of this study is to help decision makers of oil refineries to select the best pollution control strategies for a given emission reduction target. The model is demonstrated by an industrial scale refinery with three emissions including nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SOx) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, this research studies the dispersion of air pollutants that are potentially released from oil refinery. As a test case, we used a potential site for oil refinery in the northern area of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. In order to predict pollutants concentrations, dispersions and transports, we used a screening model (SCREEN3), and a non-steady state Lagrangian puff model (CALPUFF), which use topographical and meteorological conditions on concentration of pollutant emissions to examine the impacts at receptor locations.