Extensions of Randomized Benchmarking
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The characterization of noisy quantum circuits is an important step in the development of large-scale quantum computers. As experimental quantum architectures approach the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum computing, obtaining a benchmark of process fidelities is needed to verify the integrity of the system and ensure functionality. Additionally, the ability to successfully implement a quantum code of choice may depend on the type of noise that is present in the system. It is therefore necessary to characterize not only the fidelity of the process, but also the structure of the noise. Randomized benchmarking is a characterization protocol which extracts partial information from a noisy quantum process. This thesis gives a detailed review of the randomized benchmarking protocol, and presents the results of three collaborative projects which use techniques similar to randomized benchmarking to obtain previously hidden information. The first protocol is designed to obtain a benchmark on loss errors. This protocol also provides information on the detector efficiency and an additional constraint on estimated parameters from randomized benchmarking. The second protocol is an extension of the first, under the special case of coherent leakage errors, for which we obtain an estimate of the leakage rate. The third protocol provides a method of testing for spatial correlations in noisy processes. This test may be used to determine the correlation structure of errors, and the error correcting codes needed for successful experiments in a particular architecture. All protocols presented in this thesis are scalable, platform-independent and insensitive to state preparation and measurement errors. We also provide results of numerical tests of these protocols for simulated noise, which show their accuracy and robustness.