Security-aware Cooperation in Dynamic Spectrum Access
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We have witnessed a massive growth in wireless data, which almost doubles every year. The wireless data is expected to skyrocket further in the future due to the proliferation of devices and the emerging data-hungry applications. To accommodate the explosive growth in mobile traffic, a large amount of wireless spectrum is needed. With the limited spectrum resource, the current static spectrum allocation policy cannot serve well for future wireless systems. Moreover, it exacerbates the spectrum scarcity by resulting in severe spectrum underutilization. As a promising solution, dynamic spectrum access (DSA) is envisaged to increase spectrum efficiency by dynamic sharing all the spectrum. DSA can be enabled by cognitive radio technologies, which allow the unlicensed users (the secondary users, i.e., SUs) to dynamically access the unused spectrum (i.e., spectrum holes) owned by the licensed users (the primary users i.e., PUs). In order to identify the unused spectrum (spectrum holes), unlicensed users need to conduct spectrum sensing. While spectrum sensing might be inaccurate due to multipath fading and shadowing. To address this problem, user cooperation can be leveraged, with two main forms: cooperative spectrum sensing and cooperative cognitive radio networking (CCRN). For the former, SUs cooperate with each other in spectrum sensing to better detect the spectrum holes. For the latter, SUs cooperate with the PUs to gain access opportunities from the PUs by improving the transmission performance of the PUs. Whereas cooperation can also incur security issues, e.g., malicious users might participate into cooperation, corrupting or disrupting the communication of legitimate users, selfish users might refuse to contribute to cooperation for self-interests, etc. Those security issues are of great importance and need to be considered for cooperation in DSA. In this thesis, we study security-aware cooperation in DSA. First, we investigate cooperative spectrum sensing in multi-channel scenario such that a user can be scheduled for spectrum sensing and spectrum sharing. The cooperative framework can achieve a higher average throughput per user, which provides the incentive for selfish users to participate in cooperative spectrum sensing. Second, secure communication in CCRN is studied, where the SUs cooperate with the PU to enhance the latter’s communication security and then gain transmission opportunities. Partner selection, spectrum access time allocation, and power allocation are investigated. Third, we study risk aware cooperation based DSA for the multiple channel scenario, where multiple SUs cooperate with multiple PUs for spectrum access opportunities, considering the trustworthiness of SUs. Lastly, we propose an incentive mechanism to stimulate SUs to cooperate with PUs when they have no traffic. The cooperating SUs are motivated to cooperate with PUs to enhance the security of the PUs by accumulating credits and then consume the earned credits for spectrum trading when they have traffic in the future.