A Sleep-Scheduling-Based Cross-Layer Design Approach for Application-Specific Wireless Sensor Networks
Ha, Rick Wan Kei
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The pervasiveness and operational autonomy of mesh-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) make them an ideal candidate in offering sustained monitoring functions at reasonable cost over a wide area. To extend the functional lifetime of battery-operated sensor nodes, stringent sleep scheduling strategies with communication duty cycles running at sub-1% range are expected to be adopted. Although ultra-low communication duty cycles can cast a detrimental impact on sensing coverage and network connectivity, its effects can be mitigated with adaptive sleep scheduling, node deployment redundancy and multipath routing within the mesh WSN topology. This work proposes a cross-layer organizational approach based on sleep scheduling, called Sense-Sleep Trees (SS-Trees), that aims to harmonize the various engineering issues and provides a method to extend monitoring capabilities and operational lifetime of mesh-based WSNs engaged in wide-area surveillance applications. Various practical considerations such as sensing coverage requirements, duty cycling, transmission range assignment, data messaging, and protocol signalling are incorporated to demonstrate and evaluate the feasibility of the proposed design approach.