The Analysis of Seasonally Varying Flow in a Crystalline Rock Watershed Using an Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Model
MetadataShow full item record
Researchers, explorers, and philosophers have dedicated many lifetimes attempting to discover, document, and quantify the vast physical processes and interactions occurring in nature. Our understanding of physical processes has often been reflected in the form of numerical models that assist academics in unraveling the many complexities that exist in our physical environment. To that end, integrated surface water-groundwater models attempt to simulate the complex processes and relationships occurring throughout the hydrologic cycle, accounting for evapotranspiration and surface water, variably saturated groundwater, and channel flows. <br /><br /> The Bass Lake watershed is located in the Muskoka district of Ontario, within a crystalline rock environment consistent with typical Canadian Shield settings. Numerous data collection programs and methods were used to compile environmental and field-scale datasets. The integrated surface water-groundwater model, HydroGeoSphere (Therrien et al. , 2005), was used for all Bass Lake watershed simulation models. <br /><br /> Simulation results were compared to expected trends and observed field data. The groundwater heads and flow vector fields show groundwater movement in expected directions with reasonable flow velocities. The subsurface saturation levels behave as expected, confirming the evapotranspiration component is withdrawing groundwater during plant transpiration. The surface water depths and locations of water accumulation are consistent with known and collected field data. The surface waters flow in expected directions at reasonable flow speeds. Simulated Bass Lake surface elevations were compared to observed surface water elevations. Low overland friction values produced the most accurate Bass Lake elevations, with high overland friction values slightly overestimating the Bass Lake water level throughout the simulation period. Fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater domains was consistent with expected flux rates. The integrated surface water-groundwater model HydroGeoSphere ultimately produced acceptable simulations of the Bass Lake model domain.