Modeling, Stability Analysis, and Control of Distributed Generation in the Context of Microgrids
Nasr Azadani, Ehsan
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One of the consequences of competitive electricity markets and international commitments to green energy is the fast development and increase in the amount of distributed generation (DG) in distribution grids. These DGs are resulting in a change in the nature of distribution systems from being "passive", containing only loads, to "active", including loads and DGs. This will affect the dynamic behavior of both transmission and distribution systems. There are many technical aspects and challenges of DGs that have to be properly understood and addressed. One of them is the need for adequate static and dynamic models for DG units, particularly under unbalanced conditions, to perform proper studies of distribution systems with DGs (e.g., microgrids). The primary objective of this thesis is the development and implementation of dynamic and static models of various DG technologies for stability analysis. These models allow studying systems with DGs both in the long- and short-term; thus, differential and algebraic equations of various DGs are formulated and discussed in order to integrate these models into existing power system analysis software tools. The presented and discussed models are generally based on dynamic models of different DGs for stability studies considering the dynamics of the primary governor, generators, and their interfaces and controls. A new comprehensive investigation is also presented of the effects of system unbalance on the stability of distribution grids with DG units based on synchronous generator (SG) and doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) at different loading levels. Detailed steady-state and dynamic analyses of the system are performed. Based on voltage and angle stability studies, it is demonstrated that load unbalance can significantly affect the distribution system dynamic performance. Novel, simple, and effective control strategies based on an Unbalanced Voltage Stabilizer (UVS) are also proposed to improve the system control and the stability of unbalanced distribution systems with SG- and DFIG-based DGs.