On-line Monitoring and Oscillatory Stability Margin Prediction in Power Systems Based on System Identification
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Poorly damped electromechanical modes detection in a power system and corresponding stability margins prediction are very important in power system planning and operation, and can provide significant help to power system operators with preventing stability problems. <br /><br /> Stochastic subspace identification is proposed in this thesis as a technique to extract the critical mode(s) from the measured ambient noise without requiring artificial disturbances (e. g. a line outage), allowing these critical modes to be used as an on-line index, which is referred here to as System Identification Stability Indices (SISI) to predict the closest oscillatory instability. The SISI is not only independent of system models and truly representative of the actual system, but also computationally efficient. In addition, readily available signals in a power system and several identification methods are categorized, and merits and pitfalls of each one are addressed in this work. <br /><br /> The damping torque of linearized models of power systems is studied in this thesis as another possible on-line security index. This index is estimated by means of proper system identification techniques applied to both power system transient response and ambient noise. The damping torque index is shown to address some of drawbacks of the SISI. <br /><br /> This thesis also demonstrates the connection between the second order statistical properties, including confidence intervals, of the estimated electromechanical modes and the variance of model parameters. These analyses show that Monte-Carlo type of experiments or simulations can be avoided, hence resulting in a significant reduction in the number of samples. <br /><br /> In these types of studies, the models available in simulation packages are extremely important due to their unquestionable impact on modal analysis results. Hence, in this thesis, the validity of generator subtransient model and a typical STATCOM transient stability (TS) model are also investigated by means of system identification, illustrating that under certain conditions the STATCOM TS model can yield results that are too optimistic, which can lead to errors in power system planning and operation. <br /><br /> In addition to several small test systems used throughout this thesis, the feasibility of the proposed indices are tested on a realistic system with 14,000 buses, demonstrating their usefulness in practice.