MKH-Haase Charts of Binocular Vision Measurements: Repeatability and Validity of Associated Phoria and Stereotests
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Abstract Introduction: H.J.-Haase developed a systematic set of tests for evaluating binocular vision called the Pola Test. The Pola Test measures associated phoria and stereoacuity at distance and near using a variety of different targets for each. This testing method and interpretation is referred to as MKH-Haase (Measuring and Correcting Methodology after H.J.Haase –the MKH) method. The MKH method is more commonly used in Germany and other European countries than English speaking countries. The MKH-Haase method has been considered a reliable method for prescribing prisms to symptomatic binocular vision patients. Purpose: To investigate the test-retest reliability of binocular vision measurements using the MKH-Haase series of tests that comprise the Pola Test. In addition, I will compare the Pola results with other associated phoria and stereoacuity tests used in North America. Methods: Thirty-four symptomatic and 40 asymptomatic subjects (based on a symptoms questionnaire) participated in this study. Associated phoria and stereoacuity with different tests, including the Pola Test at distance and near, were measured for those subjects on two different sessions. Not all of subjects were tested with all tests. Only 30 subjects in each group completed all of tests. The Pola Test protocol requires the associated phoria and stereoacuity to be measured twice within a session; once with the Polariods oriented with their axes at 45o and 135o and again with the axes switched. Results: Within and between-sessions repeatability of MKH-Haase associated phoria and stereoacuity tests results revealed that most of MKH-Haase associated phoria and stereoacuity tests showed good repeatability within and between-sessions at both distance and near. However, there were a few exceptions to this general finding. Distance horizontal associated phoria values for the Cross Test and Pointer Test at the first session, and the distance Double Pointer Test values at the second session showed some differences between the two views. Between-sessions repeatability of the associated phoria tests did not show any significant differences. For the stereoacuity tests, the differences between the two disparities were statistically significant at the first session for the symptomatic group Line Test and asymptomatic group Step Test. For the second session at distance, the differences were significant with Step Test for both groups. The differences between sessions for both disparities were not significant for most of tests. The symptomatic group’s Step Test for crossed disparity and asymptomatic group's Step Test for uncrossed disparity were exceptions. A repeated measures ANOVA test was conducted to compare different associated phoria tests. Horizontal associated phoria tests without central fusion lock were significantly different from those with central fusion lock at distance and near. Comparison of different stereoacuity tests was conducted by comparing the number of subjects who could identify specific stereothreshold values. Results showed that at both distance and near, there were no significant differences between contour and global stereoacuity tests based on number of subjects who could attain 60 sec of arc or better. Discussion and Conclusion: Most of MKH-Haase associated phoria and stereoacuity charts have reasonable within and between-sessions repeatability. However, some associated phoria tests showed some differences especially with subjects who had higher values. Although there was a significant difference between various horizontal associated phoria tests at distance and near, most of the values differed by around 0.50 . The exception was the difference between the Wesson Card and Disparometer. The Wesson card was more exo by 1.50 than the Disparometer. Vertical associated phoria tests did not show any significant differences. Although MKH-Haase chart can measure local stereothreshold down to 10 sec of arc at distance, the AO Slide is easier to perceive. Random dot stereoacuity can be measured with MKH-Haase charts at distance down to 30 sec of arc. All of the contour stereoacuity tests are comparable at near. However, the MKH-Haase chart was easier to perceive. The Random Dot Randot test would be more useful for fast screening purposes. Random dot MKH-Haase test would be easier than TNO Test to measure random dot stereothreshold at near.
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Mosaad Alhassan (2014). MKH-Haase Charts of Binocular Vision Measurements: Repeatability and Validity of Associated Phoria and Stereotests. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/8238