Advanced Water Treatment Strategies for the Removal of Natural and Synthetic Organic Contaminants
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Prior to full-scale implementation of process modifications at the Brantford WTP, a pilot-scale treatability study was conducted to investigate intermediate ozonation/AOP and to determine the most suitable granular media (anthracite, GAC, and Filtralite®) for deep-bed biological filtration. The primary objectives of this research were to provide insight into the destruction of natural and synthetic organics and assess ozonated and halogenated DBP formation. Ozone alone was unable to achieve the 1-log removal target for geosmin or MCPA, unless disinfection-level dosages were applied. No improvement was observed when adding hydrogen peroxide. A major obstacle to the implementation of ozonation in bromide-laden source waters is the formation of bromate. There is a direct correlation between ozone dose and bromate formation and by applying ozone dosages at disinfection levels, bromate is likely to exceed regulatory limits. However, adding hydrogen peroxide reduced the amount of bromate formed, and in most cases levels fell below regulatory limits. A linear correlation was established between bromate inhibition and increasing H2O2/O3 ratio at constant ozone dose. Amongst the three filtration media investigated, only GAC achieved 1-log removal for geosmin and MCPA. The superiority of GAC over anthracite and Filtralite® was attributed to its adsorption affinity. Filtralite® and anthracite media were both ineffective for MCPA removal due to its non-biodegradable nature under conventional water treatment conditions. At a 1 mg/L-ozone dose, GAC and Filtralite® filters achieved a 1-log geosmin removal. In contrast, a 1.44 mg/L ozone dose was required to meet this target with anthracite. The tandem of ozone followed by biological filtration was very effective for the control of distribution system TTHM production regardless of filter media, with levels well below current and anticipated provincial regulatory limits. The combination of intermediate ozonation followed by deep-bed biological filtration is well suited for treating Grand River water. Scale-up considerations include pairing the proper filter media to the size of the ozone generator. The best two treatment scenarios were: Option 1: select GAC media and size the ozone generator to produce a 1 mg/L dose. Option 2: select anthracite media and size the ozone generator to deliver a 2 mg/L dose.