Time-triggered Runtime Verification of Real-time Embedded Systems
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In safety-critical real-time embedded systems, correctness is of primary concern, as even small transient errors may lead to catastrophic consequences. Due to the limitations of well-established methods such as verification and testing, recently runtime verification has emerged as a complementary approach, where a monitor inspects the system to evaluate the specifications at run time. The goal of runtime verification is to monitor the behavior of a system to check its conformance to a set of desirable logical properties. The literature of runtime verification mostly focuses on event-triggered solutions, where a monitor is invoked when a significant event occurs (e.g., change in the value of some variable used by the properties). At invocation, the monitor evaluates the set of properties of the system that are affected by the occurrence of the event. This type of monitor invocation has two main runtime characteristics: (1) jittery runtime overhead, and (2) unpredictable monitor invocations. These characteristics result in transient overload situations and over-provisioning of resources in real-time embedded systems and hence, may result in catastrophic outcomes in safety-critical systems. To circumvent the aforementioned defects in runtime verification, this dissertation introduces a novel time-triggered monitoring approach, where the monitor takes samples from the system with a constant frequency, in order to analyze the system's health. We describe the formal semantics of time-triggered monitoring and discuss how to optimize the sampling period using minimum auxiliary memory and path prediction techniques. Experiments on real-time embedded systems show that our approach introduces bounded overhead, predictable monitoring, less over-provisioning, and effectively reduces the involvement of the monitor at run time by using negligible auxiliary memory. We further advance our time-triggered monitor to component-based multi-core embedded systems by establishing an optimization technique that provides the invocation frequency of the monitors and the mapping of components to cores to minimize monitoring overhead. Lastly, we present RiTHM, a fully automated and open source tool which provides time-triggered runtime verification specifically for real-time embedded systems developed in C.