Angles, Majorization, Wielandt Inequality and Applications
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In this thesis we revisit two classical definitions of angle in an inner product space: real-part angle and Hermitian angle. Special attention is paid to Krein’s inequality and its analogue. Some applications are given, leading to a simple proof of a basic lemma for a trace inequality of unitary matrices and also its extension. A brief survey on recent results of angles between subspaces is presented. This naturally brings us to the world of majorization. After introducing the notion of majorization, we present some classical as well as recent results on eigenvalue majorization. Several new norm inequalities are derived by making use of a powerful decomposition lemma for positive semidefinite matrices. We also consider coneigenvalue majorization. Some discussion on the possible generalization of the majorization bounds for Ritz values is presented. We then turn to a basic notion in convex analysis, the Legendre-Fenchel conjugate. The convexity of a function is important in finding the explicit expression of the transform for certain functions. A sufficient convexity condition is given for the product of positive definite quadratic forms. When the number of quadratic forms is two, the condition is also necessary. The condition is in terms of the condition number of the underlying matrices. The key lemma in our derivation is found to have some connection with the generalized Wielandt inequality. A new inequality between angles in inner product spaces is formulated and proved. This leads directly to a concise statement and proof of the generalized Wielandt inequality, including a simple description of all cases of equality. As a consequence, several recent results in matrix analysis and inner product spaces are improved.