Silver Nanowire Transparent Electrodes: Fabrication, Characterization, and Device Integration
Hosseinzadeh khaligh, Hadi
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Silver nanowire transparent electrodes have recently received much attention as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) for use in various electronic devices such as touch panels, organic solar cells, and displays. The fabrication of silver nanowire electrodes on glass substrates with a sheet resistance as low as 9 Ω/□ and 90% optical transparency at 550 nm is demonstrated. These resistance and transparency values match that of commercially available indium tin oxide and are superior to other alternatives such as carbon nanotube electrodes. The nanowire electrodes are low cost and easy to fabricate. Moreover, by depositing nanowire films on plastic substrates, mechanically flexible electrodes are obtained. The silver nanowire electrodes are integrated into several electronic devices: transparent heaters, organic solar cells, and switchable privacy glass. The concerns about the suitability of silver nanowire electrodes for use in commercial electronic devices are discussed. High surface roughness, one of the major concerns, is addressed by introducing a new method of embedding silver nanowires in a soft polymer. The instability of silver nanowire electrodes under current flow is also demonstrated for the first time. It is shown that silver nanowire electrodes fail under current flow after ass little as 2 days. This failure is caused by Joule heating which causes the nanowires to break up and thus create an electrical discontinuity in the nanowire film. Suggestions for improving the longevity of the electrodes are given.