Security and Planning: A Canadian Case Study Analysis
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This thesis explores security planning policy in Canada. It provides a historical overview of the securing of cities from the threat of mass violence and demonstrates how violence affects urban populations and the form and function of cities as a result. A purposefully stampeded case study approach is used to determine the state of security planning in Canada and compare selected cities to a benchmark case of Washington D.C. This thesis contributes to the understanding of security planning within Canada in the post September 11, 2001 world and offers insight into strategies used in defense of urban areas The review of literature and discussion sections also provide a critical assessment of security planning which has occurred in the time following WWII, the IRA crisis in Britain the FLQ crisis in Quebec and the terrorist attacks in London and New York in the past decade. Research questions are answered through a case study and literature analysis approach. Results demonstrate that American responses to the threat of terrorism have motivated various governmental agencies to create policy and physical responses to respond to the threat of terrorism. This thesis concludes that Canada, in comparison to the United States and other areas has done little to secure itself against terrorist attack and more specifically that urban planning and municipalities in Canada have done little to integrate anti-terrorism security planning into their planning policy. It is argued that a lack of federal mandates, a lack of motivation and education in planning spheres as well as funding issues are contributing factors.