Exploring crime in Toronto, Ontario with applications for law enforcement planning: Geographic analysis of hot spots and risk factors for expressive and acquisitive crimes
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This thesis explores crime hot spots and identifies risk factors of expressive and acquisitive crimes in Toronto, Ontario at the census tract scale using official crime offence data from 2006. Four research objectives motivate this thesis: 1) to understand a number of local spatial cluster detection tests and how they can be applied to inform law enforcement planning and confirmatory research, 2) explore spatial regression techniques and applications in past spatial studies of crime, 3) to examine the influence of social disorganization and non-residential land use on expressive crime at the census tract scale, and 4) integrate social disorganization and routine activity theories to understand the small-area risk factors of acquisitive crimes. Research chapters are thematically linked by an intent to recognize crime as a spatial phenomenon, provide insight into the processes and risk factors associated with crime, and inform efficient and effective law enforcement planning.