Characterization of Silver-Polyaniline-Epoxy Conductive Adhesives
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Electrical conductive adhesives (ECAs) containing silver filler and polyaniline co-filler were characterized for their electro-mechanical properties. Polyaniline is a conductive polymer and has a moderate conductivity in between those of the silver and epoxy. Incorporation of polyaniline (μm sized) in silver-epoxy facilitated the electrical conduction in ECAs and reduced the percolation threshold- a minimum volume of filler necessary to initiate the conduction. It also prevented the localization of charge carriers due to aggregation of silver filler particles. ‘Bridging effect’ was observed due to addition polyaniline in which the polyaniline enhanced the tunneling of electrons over the silver filler particles. We have investigated the polyaniline co-fillers as a promising alternative way to tune the mechanical and electrical properties of the ECAs and have provided a detailed analysis of the electro-mechanical properties of silver-epoxy (Ag-epoxy) and silver-polyaniline-epoxy (Ag-PANI-epoxy) system in both partially-cured/ viscoelastic and fully-cured states. Analysis of electro-mechanical properties of silver-epoxy and silver-polyaniline-epoxy also provided the insights into electrical contact resistance of ECAs under compressive force. Electro-mechanical properties of ECAs were measured ‘in-situ’ using micro-indentation technique. We also synthesized the electrically conductive and highly crystalline nanotubes of polyaniline by mini-emulsion polymerization of aniline. The motivation behind the synthesis of polyaniline was to propose a potential filler/co-filler for replacement of metallic filler in ECAs. Electrical conductivity of polyaniline nanotubes was tuned by in-situ doping using hydrochloric acid as a dopant. Increase in dopant caused the polyaniline crystallite to grow along (400) plane. Optical, structural, electrical and thermal properties of polyaniline nanotubes are reported with varying amount of dopant. We fabricated the flexible electrically conductive coating of polyaniline tubes with uniform dispersion of polyaniline. Electrical performance of as-synthesized flexible coating is also revealed.