A Novel Multi-Symbol Curve Fit based CABAC Framework for Hybrid Video Codec's with Improved Coding Efficiency and Throughput
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Video compression is an essential component of present-day applications and a decisive factor between the success or failure of a business model. There is an ever increasing demand to transmit larger number of superior-quality video channels into the available transmission bandwidth. Consumers are increasingly discerning about the quality and performance of video-based products and there is therefore a strong incentive for continuous improvement in video coding technology for companies to have market edge over its competitors. Even though processor speeds and network bandwidths continue to increase, a better video compression results in a more competitive product. This drive to improve video compression technology has led to a revolution in the last decade. In this thesis we addresses some of these data compression problems in a practical multimedia system that employ Hybrid video coding schemes. Typically Real life video signals show non-stationary statistical behavior. The statistics of these signals largely depend on the video content and the acquisition process. Hybrid video coding schemes like H264/AVC exploits some of the non-stationary characteristics but certainly not all of it. Moreover, higher order statistical dependencies on a syntax element level are mostly neglected in existing video coding schemes. Designing a video coding scheme for a video coder by taking into consideration these typically observed statistical properties, however, offers room for significant improvements in coding efficiency.In this thesis work a new frequency domain curve-fitting compression framework is proposed as an extension to H264 Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coder (CABAC) that achieves better compression efficiency at reduced complexity. The proposed Curve-Fitting extension to H264 CABAC, henceforth called as CF-CABAC, is modularly designed to conveniently fit into existing block based H264 Hybrid video Entropy coding algorithms. Traditionally there have been many proposals in the literature to fuse surfaces/curve fitting with Block-based, Region based, Training-based (VQ, fractals) compression algorithms primarily to exploiting pixel- domain redundancies. Though the compression efficiency of these are expectantly better than DCT transform based compression, but their main drawback is the high computational demand which make the former techniques non-competitive for real-time applications over the latter. The curve fitting techniques proposed so far have been on the pixel domain. The video characteristic on the pixel domain are highly non-stationary making curve fitting techniques not very efficient in terms of video quality, compression ratio and complexity. In this thesis, we explore using curve fitting techniques to Quantized frequency domain coefficients. we fuse this powerful technique to H264 CABAC Entropy coding. Based on some predictable characteristics of Quantized DCT coefficients, a computationally in-expensive curve fitting technique is explored that fits into the existing H264 CABAC framework. Also Due to the lossy nature of video compression and the strong demand for bandwidth and computation resources in a multimedia system, one of the key design issues for video coding is to optimize trade-off among quality (distortion) vs compression (rate) vs complexity. This thesis also briefly studies the existing rate distortion (RD) optimization approaches proposed to video coding for exploring the best RD performance of a video codec. Further, we propose a graph based algorithm for Rate-distortion. optimization of quantized coefficient indices for the proposed CF-CABAC entropy coding.