The discontinuous Galerkin method on Cartesian grids with embedded geometries: spectrum analysis and implementation for Euler equations
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In this thesis, we analyze theoretical properties of the discontinuous Galerkin method (DGM) and propose novel approaches to implementation with the aim to increase its efficiency. First, we derive explicit expressions for the eigenvalues (spectrum) of the discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization applied to the linear advection equation. We show that the eigenvalues are related to the subdiagonal [p/p+1] Pade approximation of exp(-z) when the p-th degree basis functions are used. Then, we extend the analysis to nonuniform meshes where both the size of elements and the composition of the mesh influence the spectrum. We show that the spectrum depends on the ratio of the size of the largest to the smallest cell as well as the number of cells of different types. We find that the spectrum grows linearly as a function of the proportion of small cells present in the mesh when the size of small cells is greater than some critical value. When the smallest cells are smaller than this critical value, the corresponding eigenvalues lie outside of the main spectral curve. Numerical examples on nonuniform meshes are presented to show the improvement on the time step restriction. In particular, this result can be used to improve the time step restriction on Cartesian grids. Finally, we present a discontinuous Galerkin method for solutions of the Euler equations on Cartesian grids with embedded geometries. Cutting an embedded geometry out of the Cartesian grid creates cut cells, which are difficult to deal with for two reasons. One is the restrictive CFL number and the other is the integration on irregularly shaped cells. We use explicit time integration employing cell merging to avoid restrictively small time steps. We provide an algorithm for splitting complex cells into triangles and use standard quadrature rules on these for numerical integration. To avoid the loss of accuracy due to straight sided grids, we employ the curvature boundary conditions. We show that the proposed method is robust and high-order accurate.