The Development and Assessment of Rapid Methods for Fatty Acid Profiling
Metherel, Adam Henry
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Fatty acid profiling provides information on dietary intakes and an understanding of lipid metabolism. High throughput techniques such as fingertip prick (FTP) sampling has gained popularity in recent years as a simplified method for basic research, and could be further used to assess disease risk in the population, and other similar high-throughput techniques have the potential to assist in the monitoring and labeling of fatty acids in the food supply. With the advancement of high-throughput sample analysis techniques, a more complete understanding of storage stability is required as a larger volume of samples are produced with equal amounts of time to analyze them. Energy-assisted analysis techniques have the potential to help ameliorate some of these issues. Presently, FTP blood, whole blood and salmon storage stability is assessed under various storage conditions, and both microwave-assisted direct transesterification and indirect ultrasound-assisted extraction techniques are assessed. It is determined that storage of FTP blood and whole blood samples at -20°C results in significant and nearly complete highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) degradation compared to all other temperatures examined. This degradation is determined to be the result of hemolysis and subsequent iron release from erythrocytes initiating fatty acid peroxidation reactions. Direct transesterification of FTP blood is reduced from as long as three hours to one minute with microwave-assisted energy and fatty acid extraction from ground flaxseed is reduced to 40 minutes from as long as 24 hours without compromising fatty acid profiles. Results of the current study provides insight into the storage stability of food sample and blood samples collected via high-throughput techniques, and provides support for the utilization of further high-throughput energy-assisted analytical methods that can help to minimize the potentially detrimental effects that long-term storage can have on fatty acid profiles.