Key Agreement over Wiretap Models with Non-Causal Side Information
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The security of information is an indispensable element of a communication system when transmitted signals are vulnerable to eavesdropping. This issue is a challenging problem in a wireless network as propagated signals can be easily captured by unauthorized receivers, and so achieving a perfectly secure communication is a desire in such a wiretap channel. On the other hand, cryptographic algorithms usually lack to attain this goal due to the following restrictive assumptions made for their design. First, wiretappers basically have limited computational power and time. Second, each authorized party has often access to a reasonably large sequence of uniform random bits concealed from wiretappers. To guarantee the security of information, Information Theory (IT) offers the following two approaches based on physical-layer security. First, IT suggests using wiretap (block) codes to securely and reliably transmit messages over a noisy wiretap channel. No confidential common key is usually required for the wiretap codes. The secrecy problem investigates an optimum wiretap code that achieves the secrecy capacity of a given wiretap channel. Second, IT introduces key agreement (block) codes to exchange keys between legitimate parties over a wiretap model. The agreed keys are to be reliable, secure, and (uniformly) random, at least in an asymptotic sense, such that they can be finally employed in symmetric key cryptography for data transmission. The key agreement problem investigates an optimum key agreement code that obtains the key capacity of a given wiretap model. In this thesis, we study the key agreement problem for two wiretap models: a Discrete Memoryless (DM) model and a Gaussian model. Each model consists of a wiretap channel paralleled with an authenticated public channel. The wiretap channel is from a transmitter, called Alice, to an authorized receiver, called Bob, and to a wiretapper, called Eve. The Probability Transition Function (PTF) of the wiretap channel is controlled by a random sequence of Channel State Information (CSI), which is assumed to be non-causally available at Alice. The capacity of the public channel is C_P₁∈[0,∞) in the forward direction from Alice to Bob and C_P₂∈[0,∞) in the backward direction from Bob to Alice. For each model, the key capacity as a function of the pair (C_P₁, C_P₂) is denoted by C_K(C_P₁, C_P₂). We investigate the forward key capacity of each model, i.e., C_K(C_P₁, 0) in this thesis. We also study the key generation over the Gaussian model when Eve's channel is less noisy than Bob's. In the DM model, the wiretap channel is a Discrete Memoryless State-dependent Wiretap Channel (DM-SWC) in which Bob and Eve each may also have access to a sequence of Side Information (SI) dependent on the CSI. We establish a Lower Bound (LB) and an Upper Bound (UB) on the forward key capacity of the DM model. When the model is less noisy in Bob's favor, another UB on the forward key capacity is derived. The achievable key agreement code is asymptotically optimum as C_P₁→ ∞. For any given DM model, there also exists a finite capacity C⁰_P₁, which is determined by the DM-SWC, such that the forward key capacity is achievable if C_P₁≥ C⁰_P₁. Moreover, the key generation is saturated at capacity C_P₁= C⁰_P₁, and thus increasing the public channel capacity beyond C⁰_P₁ makes no improvement on the forward key capacity of the DM model. If the CSI is fully known at Bob in addition to Alice, C⁰_P₁=0, and so the public channel has no contribution in key generation when the public channel is in the forward direction. The achievable key agreement code of the DM model exploits both a random generator and the CSI as resources for key generation at Alice. The randomness property of channel states can be employed for key generation, and so the agreed keys depend on the CSI in general. However, a message is independent of the CSI in a secrecy problem. Hence, we justify that the forward key capacity can exceed both the main channel capacity and the secrecy capacity of the DM-SWC. In the Gaussian model, the wiretap channel is a Gaussian State-dependent Wiretap Channel (G-SWC) with Additive White Gaussian Interference (AWGI) having average power Λ. For simplicity, no side information is assumed at Bob and Eve. Bob's channel and Eve's channel suffer from Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), where the correlation coefficient between noise of Bob's channel and that of Eve's channel is given by ϱ. We prove that the forward key capacity of the Gaussian model is independent of ϱ. Moreover, we establish that the forward key capacity is positive unless Eve's channel is less noisy than Bob's. We also prove that the key capacity of the Gaussian model vanishes if the G-SWC is physically degraded in Eve's favor. However, we justify that obtaining a positive key capacity is feasible even if Eve's channel is less noisy than Bob's according to our achieved LB on the key capacity for case (C_P₁, C_P₂)→ (∞, ∞). Hence, the key capacity of the Gaussian model is a function of ϱ. In this thesis, an LB on the forward key capacity of the Gaussian model is achieved. For a fixed Λ, the achievable key agreement code is optimum for any C_P₁∈[0,∞) in both low Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR) and high SIR regimes. We show that the forward key capacity is asymptotically independent of C_P₁ and Λ as the SIR goes to infinity, and thus the public channel and the interference have negligible contributions in key generation in the high SIR regime. On the other hand, the forward key capacity is a function of C_P₁ and Λ in the low SIR regime. Contributions of the interference and the public channel in key generation are significant in the low SIR regime that will be illustrated by simulations. The proposed key agreement code asymptotically achieves the forward key capacity of the Gaussian model for any SIR as C_P₁→ ∞. Hence, C_K(∞,0) is calculated, and it is suggested as a UB on C_K(C_P₁,0). Using simulations, we also compute the minimum required C_P₁ for which the forward key capacity is upper bounded within a given tolerance. The achievable key agreement code is designed based on a generalized version of the Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) in which transmitted signals are correlated with the CSI. The correlation coefficient is to be determined by C_P₁. In contrast to the DM model, the LB on the forward key capacity of a Gaussian model is a strictly increasing function of C_P₁ according to our simulations. This fact is an essential difference between this model and the DM model. For C_P₁=0 and a fixed Λ, the forward key capacity of the Gaussian model exceeds the main channel capacity of the G-SWC in the low SIR regime. By simulations, we show that the interference enhances key generation in the low SIR regime. In this regime, we also justify that the positive effect of the interference on the (forward) key capacity is generally more than its positive effect on the secrecy capacity of the G-SWC, while the interference has no influence on the main channel capacity of the G-SWC.
Cite this work
Ali Zibaeenejad (2012). Key Agreement over Wiretap Models with Non-Causal Side Information. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/6805