Role of Cryptographic Welch-Gong (WG-5) Stream Cipher in RFID Security
Mota, Rajesh Kumar
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The purpose of this thesis is to design a secure and optimized cryptographic stream cipher for passive type Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags. RFID technology is a wireless automatic tracking and identification device. It has become an integral part of our daily life and it is used in many applications such as electronic passports, contactless payment systems, supply chain management and so on. But the information carried on RFID tags are vulnerable to unauthorized access (or various threats) which raises the security and privacy concern over RFID devices. One of the possible solutions to protect the confidentiality, integrity and to provide authentication is, to use a cryptographic stream cipher which encrypts the original information with a pseudo-random bit sequence. Besides that RFID tags require a resource constrained environment such as efficient area, power and high performance cryptographic systems with large security margins. Therefore, the architecture of stream cipher provides the best trade-off between the cryptographic security and the hardware efficiency. In this thesis, we first described the RFID technology and explain the design requirements for passive type RFID tags. The hardware design for passive tags is more challenging due to its stringent requirements like power consumption and the silicon area. We presented different design measures and some of the optimization techniques required to achieve low-resource cryptographic hardware implementation for passive tags. Secondly, we propose and implement a lightweight WG-5 stream cipher, which has good proven cryptographic mathematical properties. Based on these properties we measured the security analysis of WG-5 and showed that the WG-5 is immune to different types of attacks such as algebraic attack, correlation attack, cube attack, differential attack, Discrete Fourier Transform attack (DFT), Time-Memory-Data trade-off attack. The implementation of WG-5 was carried out using 65 nm and 130 nm CMOS technologies. We achieved promising results of WG-5 implementation in terms of area, power, speed and optimality. Our results outperforms most of the other stream ciphers which are selected in eSTREAM project. Finally, we proposed RFID mutual authentication protocol based on WG-5. The security and privacy analysis of the proposed protocol showed that it is resistant to various RFID attacks such as replay attacks, Denial-of-service (DoS) attack, ensures forward privacy and impersonation attack.