High Productivity Milling of Calcium Polyphosphate
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The main objective of this thesis is to further reduce the machining cycle time for producing Calcium Polyphosphate (CPP) implant constructs. To achieve this, the impregnation of the CPP lattice with various polymers is investigated, with the aim of improving the toughness of the material. By applying Taguchi’s orthogonal array method it was determined that CPP infiltrated with an ionic bonding polymer produces the best material for generating high quality machined surfaces and features. While there is some loss in surface porosity, in comparison to cutting uninfiltrated CPP, the porosity loss was deemed acceptable for the clinical purpose of the implant, and in many cases, would be trimmed off during a consecutive finish machining operation. The 2 fluted 4 mm diameter flat end mill at a cutting speed of 30 m/min and ¾ immersion up-milling, 0.1 mm chip load and 3 mm depth of cut were determined to be highly suitable for achieving both high productivity as well as excellent surface integrity. These conditions produced a material removal rate of 4,302 mm3/min, which was 14 times higher than the material removal rate achieved in machining pure CPP in earlier studies. The constructed machining model was highly successful in predicting the cutting forces, and therefore can be used in process planning and optimization in the production of tissue engineered implant constructs out of CPP. The Finite Element analyses predicted that the implant would not chip or break during the roughing operation, as validated experimentally. This allowed the roughing cycle time to be reduced from 159 min to 19 min, effectively achieving a productivity improvement of 8 times over the earlier work done in this area.