Stakeholder Involvement in Waterfront Planning and Development in Manado, Indonesia
Lagarense, Bet El Silisna
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Waterfront development is acknowledged as being significant to urban tourism planning and, ideally, the involvement of multiple stakeholders should be required in the development program. This research explores why and how Multi Stakeholder Approach (MSA) might contribute to good practice for the planning and decision-making processes for resource and environmental management, especially for long-term waterfront planning. Principles for the involvement of stakeholders in planning are reviewed and evaluated in the context of tourism and waterfront development in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The principles of MSA are assessed in a situation in which there is tension between the achievement of socio-economic benefits and the protection of environmental quality. This research involved a mixed methods approach, combining quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Fieldwork comprising questionnaire surveys, interviews, on-site observations and the evaluation of planning documents were used to provide evidences of waterfront development in Manado, and the decision-making process that preceded it. Waterfront development in Manado has massively expanded the economic opportunities that are ugently required in less-developed countries. However, such develoment is occurring at the coast of adequate environmental protection. The study provides evidence of the links between MSA, waterfront development and tourism planning in a mid-sized city in a less-developed country. Governments and Manado waterfront developers expect high returns from MWD through increasing local revenues and a stronger regional economy. However, the sustainability of the development is debatable. A stronger economy, increased incomes and wider job opportunities are widely acknowledged, but an enhanced quality of life for local people is not yet certain, especially if environmental degradation continues. Successful MSA practices can enhance awareness which, in turn, can be used to increase the support of various stakeholders and, thereby, enhance benefit-sharing. Greater involvement of multiple stakeholders in Manado Waterfront Development (MSA) would be expected to enhance their contributions to a broad range of development issues such as tourism development, environment protection, social stability and the economy, leading in the direction of sustainability. This is relevant to the main purposes of MWD which is to create socio-economic advantages both for city residents and the region in which the city is located. MWD has greatly influenced the coastal areas and environmental modification is unavoidable. However, in the case of Manado, waterfront development is being achieved at considerable environmental costs. In a developing country which places economic gains as a priority, the tangible benefits appear to exceed the apparent costs in the short term. However, for the long term, the maintenance of environmental quality is very important.