Evaluation of endothelial cell response to drug for intraocular lens delivery
MetadataShow full item record
Cataract is one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. The rate of cataract surgery has been steadily increasing. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS) is a sterile inflammatory response in the anterior segment of the eye that may occur following cataract surgery. When left untreated, it can lead to permanent vision loss. Corneal endothelial cells are the cells most affected by TASS. These cells are unable to reproduce in vivo and consequently once the density of these cells drops below a certain level, vision is reduced and cannot be reversed. The damage is thought to be mediated by cytokines and endotoxins, primarily through the NF-κΒ pathway. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory drug delivery intraocular lenses may help reduce the occurrence of TASS and consequent vision loss. In this research thesis project, an in vitro model was developed as a tool to select drug and delivery material to be used in an anti-TASS ophthalmic biomaterial. In an attempt to find a novel and more effective approach to TASS prevention, dexamethasone, a potent anti-inflammatory steroid drug, was compared to triptolide, a cytokine inhibitor; aprotinin, a general protease inhibitor; and PPM-18, a NF-κΒ inhibitor. To assess the efficacy of these drugs, an in vitro assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and lipopolysaccharide as a stimulant was developed. Cell response to dexamethasone (10 nM), triptolide (3 nM), aprotinin (20 μM) and PPM-18 (10 μM) with or without LPS was characterized by cell viability and flow cytometry analysis of cell activation. Activation was characterized using markers for cell adhesion and activation ICAM-1, PECAM-1, VCAM-1, β1-integrin, CD44 and E-selectin. Following preliminarily testing, the efficacy of dexamethasone (10 nM) and PPM-18 (10 μM) loaded polymer (PDMS) and copolymer (PDMS/pNIPAAm) interpenetrating polymer networks were evaluated over a 4 day release period. The results from soluble drug and LPS (100 ng/mL) testing indicated no decrease in cell viability after 24 h. Dexamethasone, triptolide, aprotinin, and PPM-18 did not reduce the significant ICAM-1 upregulation seen in HUVECs after exposure to LPS for 4 days. PPM-18 in combination with LPS significantly upregulated E-selectin iv and CD44 from unstimulated HUVEC cells. The polymer materials without drug loading did not influence the cell phenotype. However, PPM-18 delivering polymer and copolymer materials significantly upregulated VCAM-1, CD44 when compared to all other treatments. Propidium iodide uptake in HUVEC exposed to PPM-18 drug delivering polymer and copolymer treatments indicated that these treatments caused cell necrosis. None of the drugs, or the drug delivering materials were shown to counteract the upregulation seen from LPS stimulation of HUVEC cells. Future work should focus on validating the in vitro model to more closely replicate the in vivo environment of the anterior segment with the use of primary bovine corneal endothelial cells.