High Resolution/Wideband on-Chip Phase-Shifting
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A new active LO phase shifter was introduced and implemented in a 2x2 wide band MIMO receiver. The chip was designed with STMicroelectronics 90nm technology. The main advantages of the proposed phase shifter over previous works included a wide band range, high resolution and small area. The phase shifter is based on the dependency of the inverter propagation delay on the load capacitance. Simply, by changing the load capacitance of an inverter, a different propagation delay is generated. A number of these controllable delay cells are cascaded to provide the required phase-shift. In order for the delay cells to reduce the required amount of phase-shifting the I&Q swap circuit is introduced. The I&Q swap circuitry reduces the phase-shifting by one fourth of the original range. The wide band phase shifter is suitable for multi-standard radios, since just one phase shifter is needed to support all standards. This capability of the phase shifter could potentially reduce the size of the die and simplify the design. The measurement shows that the phase shifter is able to provide 360˚ of phase-shifting at the output base band signal when the LO is varying from 1.5GHz to 6GHz. A wider range of the phase shifter is achievable by reducing the capacitance load and increasing the number of cascaded delay cells. The proposed phase shifter is capable of achieving a very high resolution. The resolution of the phase shifter is a function of the inverter current capability and the load capacitance. The measurements show the average resolution of the proposed phase shifter is about 1.32ps. Passive components usually take up a large area on the chip. A MOS capacitor is used as the load to reduce the area of the proposed phase shifter. A method is proposed to improve the phase shifter stability over the temperature and process variations. This method is based on the fact that the propagation delay of an inverter is inversely proportional to the power supply. Therefore, the phase shifters’ power supply must be varied to maintain a relatively constant phase shifter resolution over the temperature and process variations.