Simultaneous Graph Representation Problems
Jampani, Krishnam Raju
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Many graphs arising in practice can be represented in a concise and intuitive way that conveys their structure. For example: A planar graph can be represented in the plane with points for vertices and non-crossing curves for edges. An interval graph can be represented on the real line with intervals for vertices and intersection of intervals representing edges. The concept of ``simultaneity'' applies for several types of graphs: the idea is to find representations for two graphs that share some common vertices and edges, and ensure that the common vertices and edges are represented the same way. Simultaneous representation problems arise in any situation where two related graphs should be represented consistently. A main instance is for temporal relationships, where an old graph and a new graph share some common parts. Pairs of related graphs arise in many other situations. For example, two social networks that share some members; two schedules that share some events, overlap graphs of DNA fragments of two similar organisms, circuit graphs of two adjacent layers on a computer chip etc. In this thesis, we study the simultaneous representation problem for several graph classes. For planar graphs the problem is defined as follows. Let G1 and G2 be two graphs sharing some vertices and edges. The simultaneous planar embedding problem asks whether there exist planar embeddings (or drawings) for G1 and G2 such that every vertex shared by the two graphs is mapped to the same point and every shared edge is mapped to the same curve in both embeddings. Over the last few years there has been a lot of work on simultaneous planar embeddings, which have been called `simultaneous embeddings with fixed edges'. A major open question is whether simultaneous planarity for two graphs can be tested in polynomial time. We give a linear-time algorithm for testing the simultaneous planarity of any two graphs that share a 2-connected subgraph. Our algorithm also extends to the case of k planar graphs, where each vertex [edge] is either common to all graphs or belongs to exactly one of them. Next we introduce a new notion of simultaneity for intersection graph classes (interval graphs, chordal graphs etc.) and for comparability graphs. For interval graphs, the problem is defined as follows. Let G1 and G2 be two interval graphs sharing some vertices I and the edges induced by I. G1 and G2 are said to be `simultaneous interval graphs' if there exist interval representations of G1 and G2 such that any vertex of I is assigned to the same interval in both the representations. The `simultaneous representation problem' for interval graphs asks whether G1 and G2 are simultaneous interval graphs. The problem is defined in a similar way for other intersection graph classes. For comparability graphs and any intersection graph class, we show that the simultaneous representation problem for the graph class is equivalent to a graph augmentation problem: given graphs G1 and G2, sharing vertices I and the corresponding induced edges, do there exist edges E' between G1-I and G2-I such that the graph G1 U G_2 U E' belongs to the graph class. This equivalence implies that the simultaneous representation problem is closely related to other well-studied classes in the literature, namely, sandwich graphs and probe graphs. We give efficient algorithms for solving the simultaneous representation problem for interval graphs, chordal graphs, comparability graphs and permutation graphs. Further, our algorithms for comparability and permutation graphs solve a more general version of the problem when there are multiple graphs, any two of which share the same common graph. This version of the problem also generalizes probe graphs.
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