SNGF Selected Node Geographic Forwarding Routing Protocol for VANETs
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This thesis presents a protocol for intervehicle communication for use in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET). VANET is a natural extension of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) in which the restrictions related to power and mobility are relaxed. The routing protocols used for MANETs are generally dependent on the state of the network. With changes in the network topology, routing messages are generated so that the states of the routers in the network are updated. In the case of VANETs, in which the level of node mobility is high, message-routing overhead has serious implications for the scalability and throughput of the routing protocol. This thesis introduces criteria that are recommended for use when protocols are designed for VANET applications and presents the Selected Node Geographic Forwarding (SNGF) protocol. The SNGF protocol implements controlled flooding in an efficient manner in order to reduce unnecessary communication overhead. The protocol has a destination discovery mechanism that allows it to initiate correspondence between nodes without reliance on static location services. The protocol avoids formation of clusters by using the concept of selective forwarding, thus providing the advantages of cluster based approaches without actually forming one itself. It effectively deals with blind flooding by introducing a comprehensive retransmission time delay in the nodes. This retransmission delay favors the nodes in the direction of the destination and prevents other nodes from retransmitting the same message. The SNGF protocol does not use routing tables, which require frequent updates in mobile networks, instead it relies on directing the messages to geographic locations which are forwarded by any available intermediary nodes. The protocol also provides techniques for handling network fragmentation which can be a frequent problem in vehicular networks. It is capable of delayed message transmission and multiple route discovery in the case of the non-availability of the shortest path to the destination. To evaluate the performance of the SNGF protocol, an extensive study of mobile networks was conducted using the NS2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate the reachability of the protocol, its scalability advantages and its total independence from location services. The SNGF protocol allows each participating node to operate independently of other nodes in the network. Nodes in the network are able to communicate with other nodes without ever becoming dependent on intermediary nodes. This feature opens new possibility for individual node based application development in ad hoc networks. The traffic profiling is described as it would be observed by an independent node participating in VANET using the SNGF protocol. The node communicates with other nodes and collects relevant data through the discourse capability of SNGF. The data collected by the node is viewed as a snapshot in time of the traffic conditions down the road based upon which future traffic condition is predicted. Traffic profiling is investigated for different levels of VANET deployment. The simulation results show that the proposed method of traffic profiling in a VANET environment using the SNGF protocol is viable for even lower levels of deployment.