DFIG Based Wind Turbine Contribution to System Frequency Control
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Abstract Energy is one of the most important factors that continue to influence the shape of civilization in the 21st Century. The cost and availability of energy significantly impacts our quality of life, the health of national economies and the stability of our environment. In recent years there has been a significant global commitment to develop clean and alternative forms of energy resources and it is envisioned that by 2020 10% of world energy will be supplied from renewable resources, and there is an expectation that this value will grow to 50% by 2050. Among renewable energy resources, wind generation technology has matured considerably, and wind is fairly distributed around the globe and therefore available to world communities. In the last decade, wind generation has been the fastest growing energy source globally. However more penetration of wind energy into existing power networks raises concern for power system operators and regulators. Traditionally wind energy convertors do not participate in frequency regulation or Automatic Generation Control (AGC) services, and therefore large penetration of wind power into the power systems can result in a reduction of total system inertia and robustness of the frequency response to the disturbances. The research presented in this thesis covers some of the operational and design aspects of frequency control and AGC services in power systems with mixed generation resources. The thesis examines the operation of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) with a modified inertial loop control considering single-area and two-area frequency control, both primary control and AGC. The thesis presents new, small-perturbation, linear, dynamic, mathematical models for the simulation of primary regulation services and AGC services for single-area and two-area power systems with a mix of conventional and non-conventional DFIG-based wind generators. In order to improve the performance of the frequency regulation and AGC services of the above systems, a parameter optimization technique based on the minimization of the Integral of Squared Errors (ISE) is applied to determine the optimal settings for the proportional-integral (PI) controller gains of the DFIG machines. The thesis presents analytical studies with various perturbations to demonstrate the effectiveness and participation of DFIG-based wind generators in frequency support services and draws some important conclusions. Variation in DFIG penetration levels, and wind speed levels (strong wind and weak wind) on system frequency control performance, has also been examined in the thesis.
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Mansour Jalali (2011). DFIG Based Wind Turbine Contribution to System Frequency Control. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/5730