Processing Exact Results for Queries over Data Streams
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In a growing number of information-processing applications, such as network-traffic monitoring, sensor networks, financial analysis, data mining for e-commerce, etc., data takes the form of continuous data streams rather than traditional stored databases/relational tuples. These applications have some common features like the need for real time analysis, huge volumes of data, and unpredictable and bursty arrivals of stream elements. In all of these applications, it is infeasible to process queries over data streams by loading the data into a traditional database management system (DBMS) or into main memory. Such an approach does not scale with high stream rates. As a consequence, systems that can manage streaming data have gained tremendous importance. The need to process a large number of continuous queries over bursty, high volume online data streams, potentially in real time, makes it imperative to design algorithms that should use limited resources. This dissertation focuses on processing exact results for join queries over high speed data streams using limited resources, and proposes several novel techniques for processing join queries incorporating secondary storages and non-dedicated computers. Existing approaches for stream joins either, (a) deal with memory limitations by shedding loads, and therefore can not produce exact or highly accurate results for the stream joins over data streams with time varying arrivals of stream tuples, or (b) suffer from large I/O-overheads due to random disk accesses. The proposed techniques exploit the high bandwidth of a disk subsystem by rendering the data access pattern largely sequential, eliminating small, random disk accesses. This dissertation proposes an I/O-efficient algorithm to process hybrid join queries, that join a fast, time varying or bursty data stream and a persistent disk relation. Such a hybrid join is the crux of a number of common transformations in an active data warehouse. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme reduces the response time in output results by exploiting spatio-temporal locality within the input stream, and minimizes disk overhead through disk-I/O amortization. The dissertation also proposes an algorithm to parallelize a stream join operator over a shared-nothing system. The proposed algorithm distributes the processing loads across a number of independent, non-dedicated nodes, based on a fixed or predefined communication pattern; dynamically maintains the degree of declustering in order to minimize communication and processing overheads; and presents mechanisms for reducing storage and communication overheads while scaling over a large number of nodes. We present experimental results showing the efficacy of the proposed algorithms.